Describe an old friend that you got in contact again.
Describe a family which you like and are happy to know.
Describe an intelligent person you know.
Describe a person who often helps others.
Describe a person who shows his or her feelings.
Describe an energetic person that you know.
Describe a person who taught you a skill when you were a child.
Describe a person who you are happy to know.
Describe an old person you know and respect.
Describe a friend who is a good leader.
Describe an ambition that you have had for a long time.
Describe a tradition in your country.
Describe a photograph of you that you like.
Describe a prize that you received.
Describe an area of science that interests you.
Describe an expensive activity that you enjoy doing occasionally.
Describe a conversation topic that you were not interested in.
Describe a time when you received good news.
Describe a book you read that you found useful.
Describe a film that made you laugh.
Describe a good decision you made recently.
Describe a line that you remember from a poem or song.
Describe an indoor game you played as a child.
Describe a sport that you would like to try for the first time.
Describe a film that made you think a lot.
Describe someone or something that made a lot of noise.
Describe an application (program) you usually use on your phone.
Describe a large company that you are interested in.
Describe a time when you worked in a group.
Describe a time when you changed your opinion.
Describe a time when you first talked in a foreign language.
Describe an occasion when you forgot something important.
Describe a time when you saw children behave badly in public.
Describe something you enjoyed doing with a group pf people.
Describe a time you are surprised to meet a friend.
Describe an occasion when you wasted your time.
Describe an occasion when you lost your way.
Describe a (long) car journey you went on.
Describe a risk you have taken which had a positive result.
Describe a time when you learned from a mistake you made.
Describe a time when a family member asked you for help.
Describe an occasion you wore the best clothes.
Describe a dinner that you had with friends.
Describe a public building you enjoyed visiting.
Describe a city or town you enjoyed visiting and would like to visit again.
Describe a city that you visited that has been affected by pollution.
Describe a place where you are able to relax.
Describe a foreign country (culture) you want to know more about.
Part 1 作为考试的第一个部分，还是要重视起来的，争取给考官从一开始就留下好的印象。作为对话的形式，大家可以在答题时注意替换考官问题中的关键词来展现大家的词汇range，如考官在第一部分热衷于喜好题目的提问，大家可以把考官问题的like替换其他的表达如be into，be keen on，I’m a …buff等哦，其实大部分同学的词汇基础还是OK的，只是调动自己的词汇来答题的能力欠缺了一些，所以多家练习哦！
这个季度Part 2 的备考话题较多尤其物品类话题和事件类话题，上新的题目里物品类话题又居多，给大家的备考带来了不小的难度，因为加大了合并话题的难度。大家可以在合并话题时，切忌生搬硬套，宁愿多做些修改也要保证我们回答的切题性。
S1 维修洗衣机/ S2选择夜校课程 / S3农业论文讨论/ S4 Tiffany创始人的儿子做玻璃
S1填空/ S2 单选题+配对题 S3 选择题+配对题/ S4 填空
本次考试难度中等。单词较为常规，注意以下单词的正确拼写：foreign, pottery, engineer
替换词：本场考试需注意一些常规同义替换和词组搭配。注意配对题带来的审题压力。考生们如果遇到选项较长的选择题，审题时需要对选项进行简化，“去同求异”，抓住选项之间的差别。参考剑桥练习：剑11Test3 Section2;剑11Test2 Section2;剑11Test4 Section2;剑13Test2 Section2；剑13Test2 Section3; 剑13Test3 Section3; 剑13Test4 Section3。
1. 场景方面：场景方面依旧是主流场景（租房咨询、展览、课程讨论、学科讲座），在接下来的考试中，考生还应将重点放在S1咨询，租房，面试 S2旅游，活动及公共场所设施介绍，S3课程讨论及论文写作，S4各类学术讲座。
大作文：What is the importance for individuals and countries to think about future rather than focusing on the present?
1. There was a significant increase by +数据 in sth +时间
2. From then on, the period from x to x witnessed a drop in sth.
3. Although sth fell marginally, it then increased back to the figure in 1999.
3.Task 2 ：社会类话题
主体段 1: 专注现在的好处
1. 对于个人来说（at individual level），特别是老年人(especially for the elderly)，更应该开开心心地活在当下(enjoy the present time)，不要去想未来的烦恼(rather than think about the potential problems that may occur in the future)，有利于寿命的延长(prolonged life span)；
2. 对于国家来说(for a country as a whole)，关注当下最关切的社会问题(lay emphasis on the most critical issues)，比如说人口增多(rapid growth of population)，环境污染(environment damage)等问题，着力于治理这些问题(deal with these problems)，能够更快速地使得人们的生活得到改善(change people’s quality of life in the short run)。
主体段 2: 关注未来的好处
1. 对于个人来说，关注未来发展趋势(concern about the development tendency)，才能更好的决定现在的方向(could better make decisions related to their major)，比如说学生关注未来的科技发展动向，决定大学里的专业。
2. 对于国家来说，关注未来发展趋势，才能更好地安排现在的国家任务及政策(enact proper policies and regulations)，更大程度地提升国民的幸福指数(greatly enhance the well-being of people)。
P1 食肉植物Carnivorous Plants
Passage 1：食肉植物Carnivorous Plants
技巧分析： 本篇讲包括Venus flytrap捕蝇草和pitcher plants猪笼草在内的这些食肉植物的特点及影响他们的因素。剑桥中的植物类文章比如剑10-3-2中的Autumn Leaves秋叶变红的研究，剑5-4-3中的The effects of light on plant and animal species光对动植物的影，OG中的Trees in trouble 濒危的树木都是有关植物的说明文。判断出现在第一篇是最近考试常态，本次依然是常见判断+填空的组合，填空题考察摘要。题型内部都有顺序性，两个题型之间可能按顺序出题或者穿插出题。第一篇应该控制在15-18分钟之内完成。
Evolutionist Charles Darwin first marvelled at flesh-eating plants in the mid-19th century. Today, biologists, using 21st-century tools to study cells and DNA, are beginning to understand how these plants hunt, eat and digest - and how such bizarre adaptations arose in the first place.
The leaves of the Venus flytrap plant are covered in hairs. When an insect brushes against them, this triggers a tiny electric charge, which travels down tunnels in the leaf and opens up pores in the leaf’s cell membranes. Water surges from the cells on the inside of the leaf to those on the outside, causing the leaf to rapidly flip in shape from convex to concave, like a soft contact lens. As the leaves flip, they snap together, trapping the insect in their sharp-toothed jaws.
The bladderwort has an equally sophisticated way of setting its underwater trap.
It pumps water out of tiny bag-like bladders, making a vacuum inside. When small creatures swim past, they bend the hairs on the bladder, causing a flap to open. The low pressure sucks water in, carrying the animal along with it. In one five-hundredth of a second, the door swings shut again. The Drosera sundew, meanwhile, has a thick, sweet liquid oozing from its leaves, which first attracts insects, then holds them fast before the leaves snap shut. Pitcher plants use yet another strategy, growing long tube-shaped leaves to imprison their prey. Raffles' pitcher plant, from the jungles of Borneo, produces nectar that both lures insects and forms a slick surface on which they can't get a grip. Insects that land on the rim of the pitcher slide on the liquid and tumble in.
Many carnivorous plants secrete enzymes to penetrate the hard exoskeleton of insects so they can absorb nutrients from inside their prey. But the purple pitcher plant, which lives in bogs and infertile sandy soils in North America, enlists other organisms to process its food. It is home to an intricate food web of mosquito larvae, midges and bacteria, many of which can survive only in this unique habitat. These animals shred the prey that fall into the pitcher, and the smaller organisms feed on the debris. Finally, the plant absorbs the nutrients released.
While such plants clearly thrive on being carnivorous, the benefits of eating flesh are not the ones you might expect. Carnivorous animals such as ourselves use the carbon in protein and the fat in meat to build muscles and store energy. Carnivorous plants instead draw nitrogen, phosphorus, and other critical nutrients from their prey in order to build light-harvesting enzymes. Eating animals, in other words, lets carnivorous plants do what all plants do: carry out photosynthesis, that is, grow by harnessing energy directly from the sun.
Carnivorous plants are, in fact, very inefficient at converting sunlight into tissue. This is because of all the energy they expend to make the equipment to catch animals - the enzymes, the pumps, and so on. A pitcher or a flytrap cannot carry out much photosynthesis because, unlike plants with ordinary leaves, they do not have flat solar panels that can grab lots of sunlight. There are, however, some special conditions in which the benefits of being carnivorous do outweigh the costs. The poor soil of bogs, for example, offers little nitrogen and phosphorus, so carnivorous plants enjoy an advantage over plants that obtain these nutrients by more conventional means. Bogs are also flooded with sunshine, so even an inefficient carnivorous plant can photosynthesise enough light to survive.
Evolution has repeatedly made this trade-off. By comparing the DNA of carnivorous plants with other species, scientists have found that they evolved independently on at least six separate occasions. Some carnivorous plants that look nearly identical turn out to be only distantly related. The two kinds of pitcher plants - the tropical genus Nepenthes and the North American Sarracenia - have, surprisingly, evolved from different ancestors, although both grow deep pitcher- shaped leaves and employ the same strategy for capturing prey.
In several cases, scientists can see how complex carnivorous plants evolved from simpler ones. Venus flytraps, for example, share an ancestor with Portuguese sundews, which only catch prey passively, via 'flypaper' glands on their stems. They share a more recent ancestor with Drosera sundews, which can also curl their leaves over their prey. Venus flytraps appear to have evolved an even more elaborate version of this kind of trap, complete with jaw-like leaves.
14 A conflicting views
15 C original alarm
16 D实验 painful experience
18 G great effect when combine more than more senses
19- 24 人名配对
19 B smell can be influenced by pictures or verbal
20 A smell cannot bring sharper memory
21D combine of two or three senses
22 B smell cannot isolated from others
23 A smell is in the same section of memory in the brain
Smell and Memory
Why does the scent of a fragrance ( 香味)or the mouldiness(陈腐)of an old trunk trigger such powerful memories of childhood? New research has the answer, writes Alexandra Witze.
You probably pay more attention to a newspaper with your eye’s than with your nose. But lift the paper to your nostrils ( 鼻孔) and inhale. The smell of newsprint might carry you back to your childhood, when your parents perused ( 精读) the paper on Sunday mornings. Or maybe some other smell takes you back-the scent of your mother’s perfume, the pungency ( 刺激性) of a driftwood campfire. Specific odours can spark a flood of reminiscences. Psychologists call it the “ Proustian phenomenon” ( 涌式现象), after French novelist Marcel Proust. Near the beginning of the masterpiece In Search of Lost Time, Proust’s narrator dunks ( 蘸) a madeleine cookie into a cup of tea - and the scent and taste unleash ( 释放) a torrent ( 连续不断的) of childhood memories for 3000 pages.
Now, this phenomenon is getting the scientific treatment. Neuroscientists Rachel Herz, a cognitive neuroscientist at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island, have discovered, for instance, how sensory memories are shared across the brain, with different brain regions remembering the sights, smells, tastes and sounds of a particular experience. Meanwhile, psychologists have demonstrated that memories triggered by smells can be more emotional, as well as more detailed, than memories not related to smells. When you inhale, odour molecules ( 分子) set brain cells dancing within a region known as the amygdala (杏仁区 ) , a part of the brain that helps control emotion. In contrast, the other senses, such as taste or touch, get routed through other parts of the brain before reaching the amygdala. The direct link between odours and the amygdala may help explain the emotional potency ( 力量) of smells. “There is this unique connection between the sense of smell and the part of the brain that processes emotion,” says Rachel Herz.
But the links don’t stop there. Like an octopus ( 章鱼 ) reaching its tentacle ( 触 须) outward, the memory of smells affects other brain regions as well. In recent experiments, neuroscientists at University College London (UCL) asked 15 volunteers to look at pictures while smelling unrelated odours. For instance, the subjects might see a photo of a duck paired with the scent of a rose, and then be asked to create a story linking the two. Brain scans taken at the time revealed that the volunteers’ brains were particularly active in a region known as the olfactory cortex ( 嗅觉脑皮层) , which is known to be involved in processing smells. Five minutes later, the volunteers were shown the duck photo again, but without the rose smell. And in their brains, the olfactory cortex lit up again, the scientists reported recently. The fact that the olfactory cortex became active in the absence of the odour suggests that people’s sensory memory of events is spread across different brain regions. Imagine going on a seaside holiday, says UCL team leader, Jay Gottfried. The sight of the waves becomes stored in one area, whereas the crash of the surf goes elsewhere, and the smell of seaweed in yet another place. There could be advantages to having memories spread around the brain. “You can reawaken that memory from any one of the sensory triggers,” says Gottfried. “Maybe the smell of the sun lotion, or a particular sound from that day, or the sight of a rock formation.” Or in the case of an early hunter and gatherer ( out on a plain - the sight of a lion might be enough to trigger the urge to flee, rather than having to wait for the sound of its roar and the stench ( 恶臭) of its hide to kick in as well.
Remembered smells may also carry extra emotional baggage, says Herz. Her research suggests that memories triggered by odours are more emotional than memories triggered by other cues. In one recent study, Herz recruited five volunteers who had vivid memories associated with a particular perfume, such as opium for Women and Juniper Breeze from Bath and Body Works. She took images of the volunteers’ brains as they sniffed that perfume and an unrelated perfume without knowing which was which. (They were also shown photos of each perfume bottle.) Smelling the specified perfume activated the volunteers brains the most, particularly in the amygdala, and in a region called the hippocampus ( 海马体) , which helps in memory formation. Herz published the work earlier this year in the journal Neuropsychologia.
But she couldn’t be sure that the other senses wouldn’t also elicit ( 抽出) a strong response. So in another study Herz compared smells with sounds and pictures. She had 70 people describe an emotional memory involving three items-popcorn, fresh-cut grass and a campfire. Then they compared the items through sights, sounds and smells. For instance, the person might see a picture of a lawnmower, then sniff the scent of grass and finally listen to the lawnmower’s sound. Memories triggered by smell were more evocative than memories triggered by either sights or sounds.
Odour-evoked memories may be not only more emotional, but more detailed as well. Working with colleague John Downes, psychologist Simon Chu of the University of Liverpool started researching odour and memory partly because of his grandmothers stories about Chinese culture. As generations gathered to share oral histories, they would pass a small pot of spice or incense around; later, when they wanted to remember the story in as much detail as possible, they would pass the same smell around again. “It’s kind of fits with a lot of anecdotal evidence on how smells can be really good reminders of past experiences,” Chu says. And scientific research seems to bear out ( 证实) the anecdotes. In one experiment, Chu and Downes asked 42 volunteers to tell a life story, then tested to see whether odours such as coffee and cinnamon ( 肉 桂皮) could help them remember more detail in the story. They could.
Despite such studies, not everyone is convinced that Proust can be scientifically analysed. In the June issue of Chemical Senses, Chu and Downes exchanged critiques(批评) with renowned perfumer and chemist J. Stephan Jellinek. Jellinek chided ( 责备) the Liverpool researchers for, among other things, presenting the smells and asking the volunteers to think of memories, rather than seeing what memories were spontaneously evoked by the odours. But there’s only so much science can do to test a phenomenon that’s inherently different for each person, Chu says. Meanwhile, Jellinek has also been collecting anecdotal accounts of Proustian experiences, hoping to find some com:mon links between the experiences. “I think there is a case to be made that surprise may be a major aspect of the Proust phenomenon,” he says. “That’s why people are so struck by these memories.” No one knows whether Proust ever experienced such a transcendental ( 阜越的) moment. But his notions of memory, written as fiction nearly a century ago, continue to inspire scientists of today.
技巧分析：本篇文章话题可以参考剑桥11-3-2What destroyed the civilazation of Easter Island。配对题比较多，难度较大。
Learning lessons from the past
Many past societies collapsed or vanished, leaving behind monumental ruins such as those that the poet Shelley imagined in his sonnet, Ozymandias. By collapse, I mean a drastic decrease in human population size and/or political/economic/social complexity, over a considerable area, for an extended time. By those standards, most people would consider the following past societies to have been famous victims of full-fiedged collapses rather than of just minor declines: the Anasazi and Cahokia within the boundaries of the modem US, the Maya cities in Central America, Moche and Tiwanaku societies in South America, Norse Greenland, Mycenean Greece and Minoan Crete in Europe, Great Zimbabwe in Africa, Angkor Wat and the Harappan Indus Valley cities in Asia, and Easter Island in the Pacific Ocean.
The monumental ruins left behind by those past societies hold a fascination for all of us. We marvel at them when as children we first learn of them through pictures. When we grow up, many of us plan vacations in order to experience them at first hand. We feel drawn to their often spectacular and haunting beauty, and also to the mysteries that they pose. The scales of the ruins testify to the former wealth and power of their builders. Yet these builders vanished, abandoning the great structures that they had created at such effort. How could a society that was once so mighty end up collapsing?
It has long been suspected that many of those mysterious abandonments were at least partly triggered by ecological problems: people inadvertently destroying the environmental resources on which their societies depended. This suspicion of unintended ecological suicide (ecocide) has been confirmed by discoveries made in recent decades by archaeologists, climatologists, historians, paleontologists, and palynologists (pollen scientists). The processes through which past societies have undermined themselves by damaging their environments fall into eight categories, whose relative importance differs from case to case: deforestation and habitat destruction, soil problems, water management problems, overhunting, overfishing, effects of introduced species on native species, human population growth, and increased impact of people.
Those past collapses tended to follow somewhat similar courses constituting variations on a theme. Writers find it tempting to draw analogies between the course of human societies and the course of individual human lives - to talk of a society's birth, growth, peak, old age and eventual death. But that metaphor proves erroneous for many past societies: they declined rapidly after reaching peak numbers and power, and those rapid declines must have come as a surprise and shock to their citizens. Obviously, too, this trajectory is not one that all past societies followed unvaryingly to completion: different societies collapsed to different degrees and in somewhat different ways, while many societies did not collapse at all.
Today many people feel that environmental problems overshadow all the other threats to global civilisation. These environmental problems include the same eight that undermined past societies, plus four new ones: human-caused climate change, build up of toxic chemicals in the environment, energy shortages, and full human utilisation of the Earth's photosynthetic capacity. But the seriousness of these current environmental problems is vigorously debated. Are the risks greatly exaggerated, or conversely are they underestimated? Will modem technology solve our problems, or is it creating new problems faster than it solves old ones? When we deplete one resource (eg wood, oil, or ocean fish), can we count on being able to substitute some new resource (eg plastics, wind and solar energy, or fanned fish)? Isn't the rate of human population growth declining, such that we’re already on course for the world's population to level off at some manageable number of people?
Questions like this illustrate why those famous collapses of past civilisations have taken on more meaning than just that of a romantic mystery. Perhaps there are some practical lessons that we could learn from all those past collapses. But there are also differences between the modem world and its problems, and those past societies and their problems. We shouldn't be so naive as to think that study of the past will yield simple solutions, directly transferable to our societies today. We differ from past societies in some respects that put us at lower risk than them; some of those respects often mentioned include our powerful technology (ie its beneficial effects), globalisation, modem medicine, and greater knowledge of past societies and of distant modem societies. We also differ from past societies in some respects that put us at greater risk than them: again, our potent technology (ie its unintended destructive effects), globalisation (such that now a problem in one part of the world affects all the rest), the dependence of millions of us on modem medicine for our survival, and our much larger human population. Perhaps we can still learn from the past, but only if we think carefully about its lessons.
1. 本场考试整体难度中等偏上，话题有一定难度，题型上配对题比重较大。人名观点配对+段落细节配对的组合出现也是考生平时练习的重点。下场考试除了常规的填空，判断，选择题之外，要重点预警人名观点配对和段落细节陪对题，注意人名观点配对人名的迅速定位和替换，保证得分，同时注意heading题文章段落主旨句的提取和略读技巧，学会在heading解题中覆盖其他题型提高效率。单选和多选在今年下半年考试中主力地位上升2. 下场考试的话题可能有关生命科学类，管理类和人文类。